Thursday, March 07, 2013

Systematic sexual and physical abuse in monastery boarding school in the Archdiocese of Munich in the 60s, 70s and 80s.

A new report shows that monks in Ettal used violence and sexual assault systematically. Until the eighties, they were part of the pedagogical repertoire.

In the investigation into the abuse cases of the boarders at the Benedictine Abbey of Ettal, new results show that the monks have used systematic violence. According to experts' report , there was an oppressive system using violence and sexual abuse in the school.

Violence had been "specifically used as an educational tool," writes the Süddeutsche Zeitung , citing a study report, which the Bavarian monastery itself had commissioned. Sexual assault of the monks were part of this system of violence. The investigation report of the social science institute IPP will be presented on Thursday in Munich.

Three years ago, it was learned for the first time that the monks had in Ettal sexually abused numerous students, among other things. In the report it is now stated that the monks had used "selective and painful punishment of the weak performance" of the students.

The ferocity of the violence leaves no other conclusion, "as the perpetrators either lost control of their emotions or acted on the basis of sadistic motivation". The sexual assaults were a specific variant of the violence. The teachers could not properly fill their role, the clergy were totally inadequately qualified for their educational activity.

Source in German

All Cardinal Electors now arrived

Still no date for the Conclave.....maybe tomorrow.

Alleged "Vatileaks" accomplice gives anonymous newspaper interview- more documents may be published

This hardens the view according to "La Repubblica" that valet Paolo Gabriele was not acting alone.
On the edge of the pre-Conclave meetings, the Italian newspaper "La Repubblica" has ignited again the "Vatileaks" scandal. The former papal chamberlain Paolo Gabriele was according to the newspaper not acting alone. In the affair involving the theft of confidential documents from the Vatican rather, about 20 people, including lay people and priests, have been involved.

"La Repubblica" (Thursday) published an alleged interview with an anonymous former member of the circle of conspirators who allegedly smuggled documents last year into the Italian media. The men behind the theft therefore orginate from beyond the environment of Benedict XVI.

According to an anonymous interview, other documents were stolen, which have not yet been published. The informant of the newspaper did not rule out that this material appearing in a second book. In October, a Vatican court condemned Gabriele for the theft of confidential documents to 18 months imprisonment. In December, he was pardoned by the pope. According to the judge Gabriele acted as an individual offender. In an anonymous television interview before the valet had also spoken by a group of accomplices.

The "Vatileaks" scandal had shaken the Vatican for months. It has overshadowed the final phase of the Pontificate of Benedict XVI.

Source in German

List of Cardinals who have celebrated or assisted at the Latin Mass

Cardinal Albert Malcolm Ranjith Patabendige Don , born in 1947, 2005-2009 Secretary of the Congregation for Divine Worship and the Discipline of the Sacraments, Archbishop of Colombo, Cardinal since 2010

Cardinal Keith Michael Patrick O'Brien , born in 1938, former Archbishop of Saint Andrews and Edinburgh and Primate of Scotland, Cardinal since 2003

Cardinal Franc Rode , Lazarist, born in 1934, former Archbishop of Ljubljana, em. Prefect of the Congregation for Institutes of Consecrated Life and Societies of Apostolic Life, Cardinal since 2006

Cardinal John Tong Hon, born in 1939, Bishop of Hong Kong, Cardinal since 2012

Cardinal Antonio Cañizares Llovera , born in 1945, former Archbishop of Toledo and Primate of Spain, Prefect of the Congregation for Divine Worship and the Discipline of the Sacraments, Cardinal since 2006

Cardinal Lluís Martínez Sistach, born in 1937, the Archbishop of Barcelona, ​​Cardinal since 2007

Cardinal Raymond Leo Burke , born in 1948, former Archbishop of Saint Louis, Prefect of the Apostolic Signatura, Cardinal since 2010

Cardinal Francis Eugene George , Oblate of the Immaculate Virgin Mary, born in 1937, Archbishop of Chicago, Cardinal since 1998

Cardinal William Joseph Levada , born in 1936, former Archbishop of San Francisco, em. Prefect of the CDF, Cardinal since 2006

Cardinal Sean Patrick  O'Malley , Capuchin, born in 1947, Archbishop of Boston, Cardinal since 2006

Cardinal Donald William Wuerl, born in 1940, the Archbishop of Washington, Cardinal since 2010

Cardinal Philippe Xavier Ignace Cardinal Barbarin , born in 1950, Archbishop of Lyon and Primate of the Gauls, Cardinal since 2003

Cardinal Jean-Pierre Ricard , born in 1944, Archbishop of Bordeaux, Cardinal since 2006

Cardinal André Armand Vingt-Trois , born in 1942, Archbishop of Paris, and Primate of France, Cardinal from 2007

Cardinal Ennio Cardinal Antonelli , born in 1936, former Archbishop of Florence, former President of the Pontifical Council for the Family, Cardinal since 2003

Cardinal Angelo Bagnasco , born in 1943, Archbishop of Genoa, Cardinal since 2007

Cardinal Carlo Caffarra , born in 1938, Archbishop of Bologna, Cardinal since 2006

Cardinal Velasio  De Paolis was born in 1935, the Congregation of the Missionaries of St. Charles Borromeo, former Prefect for the Economic Affairs of the Holy See, Cardinal since 2010

Cardinal Angelo Scola , born in 1941, former Patriarch of Venice, Archbishop of Milan, Cardinal since 2003

Cardinal Juan Sandoval Iñiguez , born in 1933, former Archbishop of Gudalajara, Cardinal since 1994

Cardinal Stanislaw Dziwisz , born in 1939, Archbishop of Krakow, Cardinal since 2006

Cardinal Kazimierz Nycz , born in 1950, Archbishop of Warsaw, Cardinal since 2010

All Cardinal Electors apart from Cardinal O'Brien, who has absented himself in scandal.  The others have no excuse for not celebrating the Extraordinary Form after the Motu Proprio.   While not celebrating Cardinal Ouellet and Cardinal Dolan have properly implemented the Pope's document.

The failure of the Pope Emeritus to celebrate publically the Latin Mass, which he did as a Cardinal, is more unfinished business of the last Papacy.  


How to recognise a fake Cardinal


Cardinal Ranjith even travels in an Extraordinary Form


as he drives forward to Rome
Maybe soon, he will get to put the Triple Tiara over his preferred mode of transport.

Cardinal Kasper plotting an anti-Ratzinger progressive Papacy

Cardinal Walter Kasper, will participate in the conclave, though he is 80 years old in two days. He will thus be the oldest of the Papal voters. The German cardinal is presently the most heavyweight representative of the progressive cardinals who flag up an anti-Ratzinger pontificate.

The former assistant to Hans Küng was removed in 1999 by John Paul II as Bishop of the Diocese of Rottenburg-Stuttgart and transported to Rome, where he was until 2010 President of the Pontifical Council for Promoting Christian Unity. (Cathcon-  what a pair Cardinal Lehmann, research assistant to Karl Rahner and Cardinal Kasper, assistant to  Küng- although Cardinal Kasper has proved effective in assimilating himself to conservatives around the journal, Communio.   This was founded by among others Joseph Ratzinger as an antidote to the ultra- progressive journal Concilium, supported by  Küng, among other radicals).   The promotion was part of a smooth reconstruction of the German episcopate by repression of the progressive influence. While as a "minister" of the Holy See Kasper moderated his attitudes, he has not abandoned them. Within the Roman Curia, he was theologically the real opponent of Benedict XVI. Since the resignation announcement, it was not difficult for the Cardinal to advanace as the most important representative of the progressive camp among the Conclave participants. This is a direction that is numerically no longer great among the Papal electors , but they are looking for allies.

Assistant to Hans Küng as head of the progressive cardinals

Little surprise, then, that the left-liberal Italian daily La Repubblica asked the Cardinal for an interview. That paper, from which the dubious rumor was spread of an allegedly scandalously shocking content of the Vatileaks-final report, which allegedly prompted Pope Benedict to resign. The unproven sex-crime-and-Vatican -rumor was spread worldwide. La Repubblica is currently one of a number of papers of similar political alignment that try to significantly influence the Conclave from the outside.

The newspaper asked Cardinal Kasper what he would say to Benedict XVI when he would visit him after the conclave. The Cardinal was not ashamed to announce through the media today what he was thinking of eventually saying in person to the current but still Pope. Less respect one can hardly evince. Kasper's remarks reveals a certain nervousness that Benedict XVI maybe make known to the Cardinal a preferred candidate to succeed him, or at least give an understand of the requirement profile of his successor .

An "advice" as a warning - Kasper's revolutionary plans
Kasper's response thus acts more on the conclave, when a conversation with Benedict XVI. after the conclave is noted and is a "piece of advice", which corresponds rather to a warning. So what would the Cardinal tell his German compatriot?

"Many things. The first is a piece of advice. I would recommend him to let himself be used by nobody. The danger is too great that the church leadership suffers from his influence. This must not happen. He has made his clear decision which requires a step back. He must, therefore, exercise restraint. He must avoid getting involved in questions which interfere in ecclesiastical leadership and politics. Then I would still be friendly with him and talk about what we both care about the most, theology.

The newspaper stressed then that the German Pope, especially in the local church is seen as an authoritarian figure who dictates from above, which is why in Germany particularly value is put on independence from Rome. On the question of whether Kasper see it also in this way is not contradicted by the cardinal, but he rather calls for an unspecified democratization of the Catholic Church on the Protestant model.

"It needs a new form of the exercise of church leadership. This form is called collegiality, a more horizontal government. The collegiality of the bishops must extend through forms of representation to all parts of God's people. Such collegiality would go in the direction of the Second Vatican Council of unity in diversity among all who believe in the gospel and greater dialogue with other religions. It is necessary to get away from the dryness of Roman centralism by the conviction that the centre does not mean centralization.

The reform of the curia is a priority. At the same time, it is also a big problem, because today there is a lack of internal dialogue in the Roman Curia. The departments are not talking to each other, there is no communication. This situation is changing.

In the General Congregations, we have not talked about Vatileaks. I think that the Curia should be revolutionized generally and that is independent of Vatileaks. I believe that next to the word reform a second word should be used: transparency. The Curia must begin to not fear transparency. "

"Celibacy, women priests, homosexuality" and the silence of Kasper
According to La Repubblica the conscience of many believers are moved back "issues" by "celibacy, women priests, homosexuality [...]" themes, which come back again with emphasis in the public debate. " Cardinal Kasper also contradicts in this case not a word of the statement, giving in his response another key issue:

"Banning remarried divorcees communion is a wound. I will not specify the previous policy, but one thing is certain: a serious rethinking is required on this issue. It takes humility to approach the argument from case to case. The outcome can be changed according to the diversity of the situation. "

Cardinal Kasper expresses no opinion on his preferred candidate as the next pope: "I hope that there is no reservation about anyone. We have to be open to everything, to every nationality and every geographical origin. "

Brazilian bishops have called on the progressive mass media, to create the right atmosphere for Cardinal Scherer.

Meanwhile, it was revealed that a substantial movement is in progress to promote the Archbishop of Sao Paulo, Cardinal Odilo Scherer as a candidate of the position of the "left-wing" camp. These are movements, in which the classical progressive types as Lehmann and Kasper are involved. As the largest Brazilian newspaper Folha de Sao Paulo on 5 Reported in March, the Brazilian Bishops' Conference has called on not only the Cardinals of the largest Latin American country to vote for Scherer, but also specifically asked the progressive mass media to create the right atmosphere for the election of Scherer.

By Scherer is included not only in the ten percent of the old progressives gather in the conclave, but all "liberal" cardinals who think that the steps which Pope Benedict took to reconstruct the Church went too far. So an anti-Ratzinger successor will be constructed who would annul the "restorative" parts of Benedict's Papacy. This is an alliance, which also includes parts of the Roman Curia. Those in Curia whose numbers, under Pope Paul VI and John Paul II, were greatly enhanced by a number of new councils, academies and commissions. The heads of some departments of want to live a life of their own as much as possible, which is why traditionally they share an interest with the progressives in a weak Pope, as Cardinal Kasper indirectly expressed. Those who know him are convinced that Cardinal Kasper after Scherer, also has a plan B.

Source in German

Cathcon- maybe his Plan B is Cardinal Woelki, who also has the advantage of being a fell German and who would receive the backing of Cardinal Meisner, as well as having, quite possibly the tacit support of the Pope Emeritus.     It really is time that the Rhine stopped flowing into the Tiber, and the flow is reversed. 

Cardinals demand names of two lay people cited in the Vatileaks dossier

In a speech given during yesterday's General Congregation, a foreign cardinal asked for some information on two individuals who are allegedly mentioned in the Vatileaks scandal dossier prepared by the three-man investigation commission . But the Camerlengo, Cardinal Tarcisio Bertone and the Dean of the College of Cardinals, Angelo Sodano, sent an internal communiqué urging those present not to “name names” if they are not “certain”, as they could risk fomenting a climate of suspicion and resentment.

Italian newspaper La Stampa has learnt that the two individuals referred to yesterday were not members of the clergy but laymen. One of them does not work in the Holy See but has had frequent contact and collaborated to a high level with Holy See institutions. The other is a Vatican employee.

Full story

Cathcon- this begins to look like a cover-up.  Cardinal Sodano and his successor, Cardinal Bertone are not normally on the best of terms. 

Imposter Cardinal gets past Vatican security


The real Cardinal Barbarin on his way to a General Congregation.   The English Cardinal Howard, I think  I am correct to say, was the last Cardinal to keep a ceremonial coach and horses in Rome.

Cardinal Barbarin has celebrated the Latin Mass but at the same time joins in prayer with Muslims.  He is perhaps the ultimate in liberal Cardinals. 

Cardinal celebrates Solemn Requiem Mass for Hugo Chavez in Rome

Cardinal Jorge Ursoa Savino, Archbishop of Caracas, will celebrate a Solemn Mass in Rome in honor of President Hugo Chavez, who died yesterday at age 58.

The cardinal is in Rome to attend the conclave that will elect the successor of Pope Benedict XVI emeritus.

Savino invited Venezuelans present in the Italian capital to attend the celebration.

The priest expressed "condolences" to the family of Chávez and asked the authorities to "implement the mechanisms provided for in the Constitution."

The Cardinal also appealed to all sectors of society to promote calm and harmony of the people. "In particular it is necessary to exclude any kind of violence," he said.


Chavez insults the Cardinal

Chavez insults the Pope. He will have tried by now to get past the First Pope, St Peter at the Gates of Heaven. He will not have tried this approach.

How Cardinal Savino celebrates Mass

Cardinal- lapsation is the main problem, not Vatileaks

Czech Cardinal Dominik Duka: The enormous, the central problem of the Catholic Church "is the people who lapse from the Faith"

On the priority list of the cardinals who gather currently in the Vatican, Vatileaks will not occupy the top position. This is because the enormous, the central problem of the Catholic Church "is the people who lapse from the Faith." the Cardinal Archbishop of Prague Dominik Duka told the Italian newspaper "Il Messaggero". The Czech cardinal also expressed the suspicion that the General Congregation of the Cardinals will get some information about the investigation to Vatileaks. Pope Benedict XVI in the last days of his pontificate instructed that that the investigation report on the Vatileaks affair by three cardinals should not be presented to the Cardinals, but to the next Pope.


Some excellent background on the Archbishop. One wonders how much he owes his position to fellow Dominican Cardinal Schönborn, who has for many years developed contacts with the Church in Central Europe. He will be a Thomist but maybe in the mold of the less than strict observance of the Cardinal in Vienna, who once was even heard to equate St Thomas Aquinas and the radical theologian, Father Edward Schillebeeckx OP; "they are both good".

The Dominicans are not the order they were- St Thomas Aquinas, whose Feastday falls today is turning in his grave at the idea from their Dutch Province that the laity should celebrate the Mass.

How Cardinal Duka celebrates Mass
- a Mass on the Feast of St Hubert, Patron of Hunters.

And in front of a icon of Our Lady, Salus Populi Romani-Protectress of the Roman People

Missing Vietnamese Cardinal delays announcement of Conclave date

The cardinals assembled in the Vatican for the Fifth General Congregation on Thursday still have set no date for the start of the conclave. This was announced by Vatican spokesman Federico Lombardi to journalists. The Congregation was attended by 114 of the total of 115 voting cardinals. The Vietnamese Jean-Baptiste Pham Minh Man (79) is still missing. He should arrive in the course of Thursday in Rome.

At the same time, Lombardi denied Italian press reports that the opening meeting of the Conclave is planned for next Monday in the Vatican Basilica.


The Cardinal may, as yet, be absent but he seems to have his own Youtube channel. How he celebrates Mass.

No fewer than 1000 highly problematic bank accounts at the Vatican Bank

"Bild": anonymous evidence indicates that 1,000 of the 25,000 bank accounts are "highly problematic"

While in Rome, the cardinals have gathered to prepare for the election of a new pope, obviously the internal tensions at the Vatican bank IOR continue . The German Catholic news agency KNA reports, citing the newspaper "Bild", that the Vatican's Financial Supervisory Authority (AIF) presently are investigating six IOR accounts on suspicion of money laundering.

Citing unnamed "circles within the Vatican Secretariat of State," the paper writes, of the approximately 25,000 accounts of the Vatican Bank around a thousand have been assessed as "highly problematic." As to what what sort of problems, the report does not go into details.

The customers of the Vatican Bank are usually religious orders or other religious organizations, and Vatican employees. They use the Institute for among other things, to handle international money transfers free of charge and without state supervision of other countries.

Because of the lack of controls at that time succeeded in earlier decades, even businessmen to exploit the possibilities of religious stooges of the IOR. This led to repeated scandals. Benedict XVI introduced significantly stricter controls in the past year and put gave the Swiss money laundering expert René Brülhart the job of being the financial supervisor.

Two weeks before the resignation of the pope, the German Ernst von Freyberg was appointed the new head of the Bank, his deputy is the Brasilian of German extraction, Hermann Schmitz.


Will the Swiss Bishops' Conference authorise the "morning after" pill?

Cathcon- first a report which says they have- sourced from their spokesman... Following the German Bishops 'Conference, the Swiss Bishops' Conference have approved the release of the "morning after" pill to rape victims. This was announced by the SBK spokesman, who stated that, only the method of contraception should be used, however, which does not procure an abortion.

The opening was made on 21 February, by the German bishops, after the Archbishop of Cologne, Cardinal Joachim Meisner, had a few days earlier signed with the Ministry of Health of North Rhine-Westphalia, a corresponding protocol for Catholic hospitals. The Spanish bishops followed immediately, and now the Swiss bishops.

The bishops go while the existence of a "new generation" of "morning after" pill from preparations which had no abortifacient effect. As explained by the Episcopal Conferences mentioned only these new drugs are used and then only in cases of rape. As a contraceptive, the "morning after pill" should not be used further.

Life protection organizations wonder about the behavior of the bishops, and speak of a phantom "morning after pill", relied on by the bishops, because it was not this "new generation" of "morning-after pill" preparations give. For all known drugs, also referred to by Cardinal Meisner, the experts, in addition to its prophylactic effect could one abortifacient effect can not be ruled out.

On 12 February, the day after the announced resignation of Pope Benedict XVI., Cardinal Meisner was quoted by the KNA and other media, that the Pope had been informed in advance of his decision and this was approved. A few hours later the news was denied. Cardinal Meisner stated that he did not inform the Pope, as the step is not approved by the Holy See.

This did not prevent the German bishops, on 15 February from officially approving the step of Meisner to permit the "morning after pill". Archbishop Jose Antonio Eguren, the chairman of the Commission for the Family and the Defense of Life of the Peruvian Episcopal Conference affirmed in a statement on 23 February that the Vatican's position on the "morning after pill" has not changed. The German bishops were speaking of his "new generation" of products which have no abortifacient effect, but have provided no scientific studies to support this assertion.

Pro-lifers like Günter Annen were amazed not only by the decisions of bishops, but also on the ropes, which they put in the approval of the "morning after" pill of the day.


Cathcon- however the Conference denies now that they have... In association with the public debate taking place in Germany about the so-called "morning after" pill for victims of rape, the Swiss Bishops were informed by the President of their Bioethics Commission that the Commission was already considering this question. The Swiss Bishops are waiting for the results of these discussions. A position statement from the SBK has not been given at this time, contrary to what the media have already said. The Swiss Bishops' Conference are concerned by this communication breakdown. Source Suspect that the spokesman jumped the gun, in the end the SBK deciding to wait and see which way the wind was blowing under the new Pope. Have requested from the German Bishops' Conference the scientific papers on which their decision is based. Their silence says it all, but will now request the information again, saying that if they remain silent, it proves their is no scientific basis for their decision.

See also Statement of the German Bishops' Conference

Foul play by German Bishops as Pope abdicates

Twelve Cardinals blacklisted by sexual abuse victims group

A group representing survivors of sexual abuse by priests named a "Dirty Dozen" list of cardinals it said would be the worst candidates for pope based on their handling of child sex abuse claims or their public comments about the cases.

The list names three U.S. Roman Catholic cardinals and nine from other countries.

SNAP, the Survivors' Network of those Abused by Priests, said as it released the list Wednesday that its accusations were based on media reports, legal filings and victims' statements.

A representative for one of the cardinals on list dismissed the group. The remaining cardinals or their representatives couldn't be immediately reached by CNN for comment Wednesday.

"I'm not going to respond to this group which has little to no credibility," said Joseph Zwelling, a spokesman for Cardinal Timothy Dolan of New York.

When asked about the SNAP list, the Rev. Federico Lombardi, a spokesman for the Vatican, told CNN: "We believe it is not up to SNAP to decide who comes to conclave and who is chosen. ... cardinals can decide themselves without asking SNAP for advice."

Lombardi and another Vatican spokesman, the Rev. Thomas Rosica, read the SNAP press release together, Rosica said. Lombardi declined to comment further.

The two other U.S. cardinals on the list are Sean O'Malley of Boston and Donald Wuerl of Washington, D.C., the group said.

A spokeswoman for Wuerl declined to comment.

The others listed are Leonardo Sandri of Argentina, George Pell of Australia, Marc Ouellet of Canada, Dominik Duka or the Czech Republic, Peter Turkson of Ghana, Oscar Rodriguez Maradiaga of Honduras, Tarcisio Bertone and Angelo Scola of Italy, and Norberto Rivera Carrera of Mexico, the group said.

Full story Cathcon- strangely missing from the list, Cardinal Mahony, Cardinal Danneels, Cardinal Rigali and Cardinal Brady

Open-air Mass followed by Fashion Show


Sport Festival Mass- priority for next Papacy, end liturgical abuse


Is this Cardinal Meisner's and the former Pope's candidate for the Papacy?


A few days ago Cardinal Meisner was speculating that it would be good for a man as young as 45 to be Pope. The youngest Cardinal happens to be 55 and formerly an Auxiliary Bishop in the Cardinal's Archdiocese of Cologne. Step forward Cardinal Woelki (55), seen above at his introduction to the See of Berlin, at which none other than Cardinal Meisner preached. Cardinal Marx of Munich is also to be seen concelebrating. It is not too much a leap to see the hand of Cardinal Meisner in the early promotion and indeed the red hat for Cardinal Woelki.

In the sermon, Cardinal Meisner talks about "spiritual solidarity" and "our Archbishop Rainer" in the sermon, but most tellingly in a passage about maintaining communications between Berlin and Cologne, the Cardinal says, "Berlin is worth a journey", a play on the old phrase, "Rome is worth the journey".

 Given the known closeness of the Pope Emeritus and Cardinal Meisner, it is not impossible that Cardinal Woelki is, at least, one of the preferred candidates of the Pope Emeritus. The Pope Emeritus, given the grounds for his renunciation would put a premium on youth and vigour. Unfortunately, despite the Mass above, Cardinal Woelki appears to be a liberal dressed in conservative clothing, a type which have brought the Church low since the Council. See especially the equation of homosexual and heterosexual relationships, provided they are loving. See also here.

 A long Papacy by Cardinal Woelki would have, from the viewpoint of the Pope Emeritus, the advantage of establishing the reception of Vatican II by the Church, to which he has such a deep emotional commitment as he was there. Indeed, he was responsible for much of the mischief, as a speech he wrote for Cardinal Frings was a turning point of the Council, breaking the power of the Curia. The Pope has even gone as far to use the acceptance of this single Council, over against all the others, as a litmus test of orthodoxy in his dealings with the SSPX.

 Circumstantial evidence for this is provided also by the timing. Another few months and Cardinal Meisner would no longer be a Cardinal Elector and would have diminishing influence on a future Conclave with every month that passed, especially if he himself departs from Cologne.

 One thing for sure, Cardinal Woelki is not going to be Cardinal Bertone's candidate after Cardinal Meisner's recent outburst in which he declared that he begged the Pope to sack Cardinal Bertone.

 If this comes to pass, the Rhine will indeed have flowed into the Tiber and will do so for a very long time to come. Indeed, dear God protect your Church if you want to make Cardinal Meisner's candidate Pope